How to process the Execution of Shallow Foundation Work on construction site

How to process the Execution of Shallow Foundation Work on construction site


(A)Introduction: 
Execution of foundation work is quite crucial for structure. Foundation is the initial phase of the construction which receives all the loads from the superstructure. It plays important role to keep the structure safe. In this articles of I have included the steps or procedure of foundation work on the site.

(B) Stages of Execution of Foundation work


This stage of the execution of the foundation may differ according to the state and company strategy.

1.Excavations:

Excavation is the preliminary step of construction. Excavation is the process of removing unnecessary   soil mass from its original location. Removed Soil mass is required for back fill or grade fill. Excavation is generally Bulk excavation, trench excavation and pit excavation. Excavation is done as per the engineering report or as per Engineer suggestions.


2. .Anti-Termite Treatment

Termite control is the second step of executing the shallow foundation at construction site. After the excavation compaction is done on the foundations surfaces.

a)What is termite?

Termite is renowned as “Silent killer or silent destroyer” because it damages the structure. Termite eats wood, plastics fabric from plants, wallpaper.


b)What is the Purpose of Anti-Termite Treatment for any Structure?

 Termite is the main purposes of providing the anti-termite treatment is to protect the structure from sub terrain termites. Anti termite is in the form of liquid which sprayed on the earth and kept it open to the atmosphere for 24 hours.Anti –termite treatment is sprayed all the side and bottom portion of excavation.


3.       Shuttering :

Shuttering is done at all the sides of the foundations for concreting and required shape. Excavations are done at least 1 foot extra from the actual width and length of the foundation because of easy placing and removing of shuttering.

4.       Polythene sheet:

This is the third step of process of execution of work on site. Polythene sheet is laid on the surface of ground after the Anti termite treatment. The size of polythene sheet ranges from 2 mm to 6 mm thick.


a)Purposes of polythene sheet

Polythene sheet is act as damp proof membrane. Polythene sheet helps to control seepage of water into the bottom of the foundation. In initial stage of concrete, the water from the concrete will come out and it will soaked by the ground then it loses it strength and workability.So prevent the concrete property polythene sheet is provided.

5.       Plain cement Concrete (P.C.C. ):

Plain cement is the mixture of cement, sand, and aggregate without reinforcement. In execution of foundation work, the Grade of concrete used is
Grade of concrete   =M 7.5
Proportion of concrete= 1:4:8
1= cement
2= fine aggregate
4 = Coarse aggregate
Amount of water in literequired cement content and water cement ratio. The thickness of PCCis 10 cm.


6.       Implementation of Reinforcement :

In foundation work reinforcement is provided in both the direction .One direction bar is main bar and another direction bar is distribution bar or Binders. This Reinforcement is withstands by the concrete cover blocks
The minimum thickness of cover to main reinforcement shall not be less than 50 mm to surface contact with the earth surface.


7.       Marking Center line:

Center line is marked as per structural drawing. Longitudinal Bar is positioned and the development length of the bar is tied with laid reinforcement.

8.       Neck  Column:

Neck column is extended up to the plinth level. It is the portion or parts of the column between the top of the footing to ground beam.

9.       Concreting:

After doing Reinforcement and column extension concreting is done properly.


10.   Bitumen Paint:

After neck column is constructed then bitumen paint is done. It is black color paint and painted over the structure before the back filling of soil.


a)Why we provide the Bitumen Paint ?

a)      Bitumen is act as water proofing material and weather protecting.
b)      It imparts strength.
c)       It protects the structure from the corrosion.
d)      It is done all around the structure.

Source: civilfieldwork

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